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JOC 36 21 3240

fremys salt

Microgram abstracts

Title: Phenethylamines in Tablets Seized in Southern Spain, 1993-1998
Author: Moreno-E; Soriano-T; Roca-I; Paz-Giminez-M; Menendez-M
Source: () MICROGRAM; 2002; V35 (2); February; P53-61
Abstract: This paper presents the results of a survey of illicitly manufactured phenethylamines seized in southern Spain between 1993 and 1998. As most of the material seized was in tablet form, descriptions of the tablets are included. The chemical structures of the illicitly manufactured phenethylamines identified are described, together with the incidence of each phenethylamine and those of combinations of drugs.

Title: Oxycodone
Author: Anon
Source: () MICROGRAM; 2002; V35 (2); February; P43-46
Abstract: In the United States, the abuse of the analgesic oxycodone has been a problem since the 1960s. Oxycodone was classed as a Schedule II drug in 1970, but its abuse continued. The introduction of a new, sustained-release formulation, Oxycontin, has resulted in an increase in the abuse of this drug. The main sources of illicit oxycodone are forged prescriptions, theft, and unscrupulous pharmacists, doctors, and dentists. This drug is abused for its opiate-like effects, and is equipotent to morphine in terms of analgesic effects and in relieving symptoms of abstinence from chronic opiate use. Adverse effects of oxycodone use include the development of tolerance and dependence.

Title: Acid Hydrolysis of Cocaine
Author: Alexander-G-L
Source: () MICROGRAM; 1984; V17 (3); March; P41-45
Abstract: The aim of this work was to investigate the decomposition rate of cocaine in concentrated acids, the development of a method for determining the maximum amount of cocaine initially dissolved in the acid, and the identification of the hydrolysis products, benzoic acid and ecgonine. Gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) was used for the quantitative analysis of cocaine hydrochloride, and benzoic acid was quantified by UV/Vis spectrophotometry. The identification of benzoic acid and ecgonine was achieved using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometry, and the ecgonine trimethylsilyl derivative was identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).

Title: The Identification of Psilocybin in Chocolate Cookies
Author: Hugel-J
Source: () MICROGRAM; 1984; V17 (8); August; P111-119
Abstract: This paper describes the analysis of chocolate biscuits which were submitted to the laboratory as they were thought to contain an hallucinogenic substance. The method used for the analysis of the material involved a combination of Hurst's method for determining carbohydrates in chocolate, Moscher's method for the analysis of psilocybin in plant material, and the method of Timmons and Repke et al. for the analysis of psilocybin by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).

Title: Angel Trumpet
Author: Churchill-K-T
Source: () MICROGRAM; 1995; V28 (8); August; P250-253
Abstract: In response to requests for information on the abuse of parts of a plant with trumpet-shaped flowers, known in the United States as "Angel Trumpet", this paper provides background information on this plant, which belongs to the solanacea family, genus Datura, species suaveolens. Chemical analysis of Datura plant material reveals the presence of atropine, scopolamine, and hyoscyamine, hence its abuse.

Title: The Use and Availability of Ephedra Products in the United States
Author: Hutchinson-K; Andrews-K-M
Source: () MICROGRAM; 1995; V28 (8); August; P256-263
Abstract: This paper provides chemical information on Ephedra plant material, its potential role in the illicit synthesis of methylamphetamine, and its use/abuse as a stimulant. Ephedra plant materials or extracts have been discovered in clandestine laboratories engaged in the synthesis of (+)-methylamphetamine using (-)-ephedrine and (+)-pseudoephedrine extracted from the plant material.

Title: 4-Bromo-2,5-Dimethoxyphenethylamine Placed Into Schedule I
Author: Greene-S-H
Source: () MICROGRAM; 1995; V28 (8); August; P242-243
Abstract: This Federal Register notice details action which was taken to place 4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamine (2,5-DMPEA) in Schedule I of the Controlled Substances Act (CSA). This compound, which is also known as 2-(4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-1-aminoethane and alpha-desmethyl DOB, also has the street names 2C-B, NEXUS, Bromo, and Toonies. This compound was temporarily placed into Schedule I in January, 1994, with permanent placement being initiated in December, 1994.

Title: The Identification of a Methyl Homologue of Alpha-Methyl Fentanyl
Author: Allen-A-C; Lurie-I-S
Source: () MICROGRAM; 1984; V17 (1); January; P8-14
Abstract: An exhibit submitted to the authors' laboratory was found to contain N-[1-(-methyl,2-phenylethyl)-4-piperidyl] acetanilide (A), a compound which is identical to alpha-methyl fentanyl ("China White"), with the exception of the substitution of the propionyl group for an acetyl. It is believed that compound A was the target compound of a clandestine synthetic preparation, evidence for which is provided by the presence of the following impurities: N-[1-(1-methyl,2-phenylethyl)-4-piperidyl] acrylanilide, acetanilide, and acrylanilide.A logical synthetic route, which accounts for the presence of all the compounds, is given.

Title: The Isolation of Psilocybe cubensis from a Chocolate Cookie
Author: Redhead-S-A
Source: () MICROGRAM; 1984; V17 (8); August; P120-122
Abstract: This paper describes the process by which Psilocybe cubensis fungi were isolated from chocolate biscuits which came from an exhibit in which psilocybin had been detected. Microscopic examination of cultures reared from the samples confirmed that the fungus was a species of Psilocybe, later identified by the spores to be Psilocybe cubensis. This work shows that the incorporation of the hallucinogenic fungus into chocolate does not entirely kill the fungal mycelium, allowing the re-isolation of the fungus and, therefore, the source of the psilocybin.

Title: 2-Ethyl-3-Phenyl-4(3H)-Quinazolinone
Author: Lorimer-P
Source: () MICROGRAM; 1984; V17 (5); May; P72-74
Abstract: Counterfeit Quaalude tablets seized in New Jersey contained an unusual structural isomer of methaqualone. This ingredient was also found in another batch of seized tablets, also in New Jersey. This product, 2-ethyl-3-phenyl-4(3H)-quinazolinone, is synthesised in a similar manner to methaqualone, with the exception that propionic anhydride and aniline replace acetic anhydride and o-toluidine, respectively. This paper provides the MS, IR, and NMR spectra for the free base and hydrochloride salt forms of this compound.

Title: The Identification of Psilocin and Psilcybin Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
Author: Timmons-J-E
Source: () MICROGRAM; 1984; V17 (2); February; P28-32
Abstract: This paper describes the identification of the hallucinogens psilocin and psilocybin in mushrooms by methanol extraction, acetone precipitation of interfering sugars, and trimethylsilyl derivatisation prior to analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).

Title: Digital Evidence Worksheet
Author: Phelan-M-J
Source: () MICROGRAM; 2002; V35 (1); January; P29-35
Abstract: Digital evidence worksheets, which record basic information collected during the initial phase of the process of digital evidence examination, should be included in every digital laboratory's examination protocol. The benefits of a standardised digital evidence worksheet include: facilitating the transfer of evidence among laboratories or between examiners; the uniformity of the information recorded avoids important information being overlooked; the provision of a sequential process in order to maximise efficiency in the hard drive duplication process; and the purposeful duplication of critical information collection tasks. An example of such a worksheet is provided.

Title: Analysis of Xylazine HCl and Ketamine HCl
Author: White-C-L
Source: () MICROGRAM; 2002; V35 (1); January; P16-28
Abstract: The increase in the popularity of ketamine, a veterinary anaesthetic, as a drug of abuse has resulted in ketamine (including its salts, isomers, and salts of isomers) being considered a Schedule III drug in the United States. In equine medicine, xylazine hydrochloride is administered as a sedative and muscle relaxant prior to the administration of ketamine in order to minimise stress and hallucinations experienced by the animal. Since ketamine was classed as a Schedule III drug, a combined study of ketamine and xylazine has not been published. This paper considers the following topics: (a) spot tests for both compounds; (b) the qualitative analysis of ketamine and xylazine by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Fourier transform nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (FT-NMR), and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS); and (c) the use of gas chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for the quantitative analysis of ketamine.

Title: New Presumptive Tests for GHB
Author: Smith-P-R; Bozenko-J-S
Source: () MICROGRAM; 2002; V35 (1); January; P10-15
Abstract: Recent years have witnessed a significant increase in the popularity of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) and gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) as drugs of abuse. The current colour tests for GHB, however, lack specificity, and do not perform well with dilute solutions due to high limits of detection. This paper gives details of three new presumptive colour tests for GHB which are discriminative, sensitive, and useful as field tests and laboratory reagents.

Title: Detection of Adulteration of Opium with Milk and/or Cocoa by Thin Layer Chromatography
Author: Banerjee-S; Agnihotri-A; Gupta-A-P
Source: () MICROGRAM; 2001; V34 (11_; November; P301-307
Abstract: The Indian Government pays private opium farmers on the basis of dry weight of opium, therefore it is tempting for the farmers to adulterate their product in order to increase their yield. The latest additions to the list of adulterants used are milk products, including milk powder and cocoa-based powders. This paper describes a method, based on thin-layer chromatography (TLC) for the detection of milk and cocoa products as adulterants in samples of opium. The target compounds are sugars, casein, and theobromine. This test is not affected by the presence of other adulterants.

Title: Identification and Quantitation of Gamma-Hydroxybutyrate in Illicit Drug Samples
Author: Rees-D-K; Wasem-S-E; Patierno-E-R
Source: () MICROGRAM; 2001; V34 (12); December; P329-339
Abstract: In the United States, gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) was classified as a Schedule I drug in March, 2000, therefore a method was required for the forensic laboratory identification and quantitation of this substance. GHB and related compounds can be identified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and/or gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Quantitative analysis of GHB can be achieved by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Poor retention hampers the quantitation of GHB using reversed-phase HPLC. The use of paired ion chromatography improves the retention of GHB. The quantitative analysis of GHB in several sample matrices is described.

Title: Levels of Residual Cocaine Base Found in Smoking Devices in Central Florida
Author: Davis-F-T; Bass-K-L
Source: () MICROGRAM; 2001; V34 (12); December; P327-328
Abstract: Crack cocaine (cocaine base) is smoked by users, using various home-made smoking devices. The aim of this study was to determine the amount of residual cocaine base remaining in such smoking devices. To this end, 15 pipes that had been submitted to the laboratory were analysed for cocaine base content using gas chromatography. The amount of cocaine base measured ranged from 0.9 to 57.3 mg per smoking device. No correlation was found between the type of smoking device and the amount of cocaine base it contained, and there was wide variation in the levels of cocaine base found in similar types of smoking devices.

Title: Logo and Headspace Comparison for Source Determination of Ecstasy Seizures
Author: Vu-D-T
Source: () MICROGRAM; 2001; V34 (9); September; P244-256
Abstract: This paper describes the determination of the source of MDMA (Ecstasy) tablets, based on the headspace profiles and the tablet logos found on seized material. Although the results obtained are encouraging, it is useful to obtain tablet dimensions and weight, and details of too markings caused by tablet presses, for complete source identification.

Title: A Normal Phase HPLC Method for the Quantitation of MDMA in Illicit Ecstasy Tablets
Author: Chan-K-B
Source: () MICROGRAM; 2001; V34 (9); September; P237-243
Abstract: Malaysian law states that the amount of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, Ecstasy) found on an individual determines the penalty, therefore MDMA must be quantitatively analysed in such cases. This paper describes a normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method, using dextromethorphan hydrobromide as the internal standard, for the quantitative analysis of MDMA in seized tablets. This method is rapid, precise, and accurate, and can probably be adapted for the analysis of MDA, MDEA, and MBDB.

Title: The Name of the Test
Author: Mausolf-N
Source: () MICROGRAM; 2001; V34 (9); September; P235-236
Abstract: There is some confusion surrounding the correct name of the colour test most often used to identify cannabis, with the terms Duquenois-Levine, modified Duquenois, and modified Duquenois-Levine all being used for what is, presumably, the same test. This can lead to confusion whenever a given test is named, although such confusion can be avoided by referring to the original literature regarding the use of this test.

Title: The Identification, Purification, and Authentication of Some Reference Drug Standards
Author: Chan-K-B
Source: () MICROGRAM; 2001; V34 (8); August; P214-219
Abstract: The analysis of illicit drugs requires the use of reference drug standards. Such standards are usually purchased from drug manufacturers and distributors, but a recent increase in prices has prompted the preparation of drug reference standards from seized samples. In this paper, details are given of the preparation and authentication procedures carried out when making drug reference standards. The standards prepared are 6-monoacetylmorphine, methylamphetamine, MDA, MDMA, MDEA, and MBDB (all as hydrochloride salts).

Title: Extraction of Mescaline from Peyote
Author: Maloney-D-C
Source: () MICROGRAM; 2001; V34 (8); August; P205-213
Abstract: Peyote is the mescal button or the flowering head of the Lopophora Williamsii Cactaceae, a plant which grows mainly in northern Mexico and southern Texas. The psychoactive element in the mescal button is the alkaloid mescaline. Several different methods for the extraction of mescaline from peyote have been reported. This paper focuses on the isolation of mescaline and the chromatographic separation with the other alkaloids contained in peyote. Particular attention is paid to the extraction and clean-up steps, followed by gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) analysis.

Title: Analysis of Cocaine Hydrochloride in Wax
Author: Jellema-R
Source: () MICROGRAM; 2001; V34 (7); July; P183-189
Abstract: An exhibit which was recently submitted to the author's laboratory comprised 13 kg of brown wax containing small amounts of water. According to one of the suspects in this case, the wax originally contained cocaine. In order to extract the cocaine from the wax, the wax was cut into small lumps, added to hot water, and stirred vigorously. This mixture was then poured into cold water. Although information on the rest of the extraction method was lacking, the result was 2 kg of cocaine. This indicated that the cocaine was present in the wax in the form of a water soluble salt. Two buckets containing Carnabee wax (60% beeswax and 40% carnauba wax) were subsequently submitted to the laboratory. In this paper details are given of the methods used for the separation, identification, and quantitation of the cocaine hydrochloride, and also for the identification of the wax.

Title: The Identification of 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-(N)-Propylthiophenethylamine (2C-T-7)
Author: Zimmerman-M-M
Source: () MICROGRAM; 2001; V34 (7); July; P169-182
Abstract: Two different samples of unidentified substances, in the form of capsules filled with white powder, were submitted to the author's laboratory. The capsules had been sold to an informant as "Tweety-Bird Mescaline," which is supposedly a new designer drug. Two additional submissions comprised paper packets containing tan powder. Analysis of the capsule powders by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis of the tan powder, revealed that all of the powders were 2,5-dimethoxy-4-(n)-propylthiophenylethylamine (2C-T-7).

Title: An Encounter with 5-Methoxy-N,N-Diisopropyltryptamine
Author: Anon
Source: () MICROGRAM; 2001; V34 (6); June; P126
Abstract: Two capsules (32 and 102 dosage units, respectively) were recently submitted to the Western laboratory of the DEA. Direct infrared examination of the coloured powders inside the clear capsules suggested that the powders were mainly composed of an unidentified saccharide. Gas chromatography, proton and carbon nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed and confirmed the presence of 5-methoxy-N,N-diisopropyltryptamine, which is reportedly hallucinogenic, in the form of the hydrochloride salt. The dose was approximately 4 mg/capsule. The Marquis colour test can be used to screen for the presence of this substance.

Title: GC/MS Identification of Iodine - Part Two
Author: Schieferecke-J

Source: () MICROGRAM; 2001; V34 (5); May; P112-117
Abstract: This paper describes a method for the qualitative determination of elemental iodine found at clandestine laboratories involved in the manufacture of methylamphetamine. This method involves the formation of the ethyl iodide derivative using ethanol and red phosphorus. This derivative can then be analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).

Title: GC/MS Identification of Iodine - Part One
Author: Worley-D; Schieferecke-J; Baer-J
Source: () MICROGRAM; 2001; V34 (5); May; P110-111
Abstract: Iodine which has been derivatised into iodobenzene can then be analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). This procedure may be used for the identification of iodine in used filter papers and reaction sludge used in clandestine laboratories and also elemental iodine.

Title: Crystal MDMA
Author: Soltis-B-H; Panusky-D-D; Pedrini-D; Guglielmo-C
Source: () MICROGRAM; 2001; V34 (3); March; P59-60
Abstract: The Philadelphia Field Division of the United States Drug Enforcement Administration recently encountered an unusual form of 3,4-methylenedioxymethylamphetamine (MDMA). This report details how this new, crystallised form of MDMA came to the attention of the authorities, the results obtained from the analysis of two samples of this so-called 'crystal MDMA', and a description of the physical appearance of crystal MDMA. It should be noted that, because of the high purity of crystal MDMA, the risk of overdose is much higher than with conventional MDMA formulations.

Title: Oxycodone
Author: Anon
Source: () MICROGRAM; 2001; V34 (3); March; P48-49
Abstract: Oxycodone (trade names: Tylox, Percodan, Oxycontin) is legitimately used as an analgesic for the relief of mild to moderate pain and for the treatment of terminal cancer pain. However, oxycodone is abused for its opiate-like effects and is often used to alleviate or prevent opiate withdrawal by heroin or methadone users. The adverse effects of oxycodone abuse are dependence and the development of tolerance. Oxycodone is also available as a sustained-release formulation (Oxycontin), which has increased dosage forms from 10 to 160 mg per tablet. The relative ease of availability and its perceived safety have seen an increase in the abuse of oxycodone in recent years.

Title: Analytical Update on Creatine
Author: Chew-S; Chappell-J
Source: () MICROGRAM; 2001; V34 (2); February; P33-37
Abstract: Creatine has recently been determined in several drug exhibits, including cocaine and methylamphetamine, submitted to the authors' laboratory. The first report of creatine in cocaine samples was made in August 2000 in a paper that also detailed aspects of the analysis of creatine. This paper reports additional aspects of the analysis of creatine.

Title: Identification of Sodium Gamma-Hydroxybutyrate (NaGHB) by Infrared Spectroscopy, Utilising a 3 Bounce Diamond ATR Element
Author: Catterton-A-J
Source: () MICROGRAM; 2001; V34 (1); January; P15-20
Abstract: Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), which occurs naturally in the body as an inhibitory neurotransmitter, is mainly abused for its ability to produce euphoria and hallucinations in abusers. Consequently, GHB has been classed as an illegal substance in 24 of the United States. This paper describes the identification of sodium GHB (NaGHB) using an attenuated total reflectance (ATR) system, with a three-bounce diamond in conjunction with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR).

Title: Red Phosphorus Analysis Using a Gas Chromatograph/Mass Spectrometer
Author: Schieferecke-J
Source: () MICROGRAM; 2000; V33 (12); December; P339
Abstract: A rapid, qualitative method is described for the determination of red phosphorus present in clandestine laboratories which manufacture methylamphetamine. This procedure involves the conversion of some of the red phosphorus to white phosphorus using heat, as white phosphorus is slightly soluble in chloroform. The sample in chloroform can then be subjected to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for analysis.

Title: Identification of Thiamine by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
Author: Morales-R
Source: () MICROGRAM; 2000; V33 (10); October; P295-299
Abstract: Thiamine hydrochloride has been reported in samples of heroin and can be identified by solid-phase infrared after it has been isolated from the sample by solvent extraction. This paper describes a method for the identification of thiamine using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry which can be used when it is not possible to isolate thiamine hydrochloride.

Title: Potential for Gamma-Butyrolactone Synthesis from Tetrahydrofuran and 1,4-Butanediol
Author: Morris-J-A
Source: () MICROGRAM; 2000; V33 (11); November; P321-324
Abstract: After the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) imposed restrictions on gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), users of GHB gradually switched to gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) and 1,4-butanediol (BDO) as the ingestion of either of these results in the gradual metabolic conversion into GHB. GBL was, therefore, designated a List I controlled chemical, but BDO is still uncontrolled. The diminishing supply of GBL has resulted in inquiries being submitted to GHB-related Internet sites regarding the synthesis of GBL from tetrahydrofuran (THF) and BDO. Internet links have mentioned the oxidation of THF to GBL and the oxidation of BDO into GBL. A review is presented of the literature related to these proposed oxidation methods. Given the wide availability of both THF and BDO, the potential remains for their conversion into GBL for direct ingestion or conversion into GHB.

Title: Report of the Spring 2000 SWGDRUG Conference
Author: Anon
Source: () MICROGRAM; 2000; V33 (9); September; P257-282
Abstract: The aim of this document is the recommendation of minimum standards for the forensic identification of drug seized by law enforcement organisations. The correct identification of a drug or chemical is dependent upon the use of an analytical scheme which is based on validated methods coupled with the ability of the analyst. This document requires the use of several uncorrelated techniques. No particular method is discouraged from being used in an analytical scheme. Differing requirements between jurisdictions may influence the practices employed by laboratories.

Title: The Use of Specific Infrared Absorption Bands to Distinguish Cocaine Base and Cocaine HCl When Mixed with Known Adulterants or Diluents
Author: Morales-R
Source: () MICROGRAM; 2000; V33 (9); September; P247-256
Abstract: Although solid-phase Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy can be applied to the identification of a controlled drug's salt form, analysts often encounter cocaine base or cocaine hydrochloride in mixtures with diluents and adulterants, making it difficult to separate the cocaine base or hydrochloride from these substances for further identification. This paper presents an alternative method by which the salt form of cocaine can be determined in the presence of commonly encountered adulterants. This technique concentrates on two regions of the IR spectrum, and compares observed IR absorbances in these regions for pure cocaine base and cocaine hydrochloride with mixtures of the two. This technique can be used to determine if cocaine is present in base or hydrochloride form in a given mixture, as the absorption bands at 1737.58/cm, 723.19/cm and 713.54/cm for cocaine base differ from those of cocaine hydrochloride.

Title: Best Practices or Principles
Author: Phelan-M-J
Source: () MICROGRAM; 2000; V33 (8); August; P234-236
Abstract: All forensic disciplines should have a documented standard operating procedure to outline the methods for handling and processing evidence. Such procedures are based on a set of generally agreed upon principles, usually referred to as "best practices." In all forensic disciplines, including computer forensics, the scope of best practices should be broad enough to encompass all the technical operations carried out in the laboratory. Practitioners of computer forensics must establish a common set of principles or best practices that will form the basis for each organisation to develop its own standard operating procedures. This paper offers several principles for consideration. Most of the principles offered apply to all forensic disciplines.

Title: Creatine - An Analytical Profile
Author: Churchill-K-T
Source: () MICROGRAM; 2000; V33 (8); August; P223-233
Abstract: Recently, creatine monohydrate was identified as being the main component in four exhibits containing cocaine hydrochloride. Creatine can be obtained over the counter as a dietary supplement and a so-called "workout energiser." Its solubility in solvents is limited, and creatinine is formed in aqueous solutions. Although aqueous and alkaline solutions have an equilibrium mixture of creatine and creatinine, acid solutions contain only creatinine. This paper presents an analytical profile of creatine monohydrate which was established using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy.

Title: The Identification of 4-Methoxyamphetamine (PMA) and 4-Methoxymethamphetamine (PMMA)
Author: Dal-Cason-T-A
Source: () MICROGRAM; 2000; V33 (8); August; P207-222
Abstract: In March 2000, 15 tablets bearing a logo (Mitsubishi 3-Diamond) usually associated with illicit 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine HCl (MDMA, ecstasy) were found to have 4-methoxymethamphetamine HCl (PMMA) as their main ingredient. At the same time, similar tablets, which were associated with several deaths, reportedly contained 4-methoxyamphetamine HCl (PMA). The physiological effects of PMMA and PMA are significantly different, with PMMA reportedly having MDMA-like effects and PMA having amphetamine-like effects. This paper presents data obtained from the analysis of PMA and PMMA by capillary gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and "colour" tests.

Title: SWGDRUG Recommendations for Quality Assurance Guidelines in Forensic Drug Analysis
Author: Anon
Source: () MICROGRAM; 2000; V33 (7); July; P178-189
Abstract: These recommendations cover only the qualitative analysis of seized drugs. Laboratory drug analysis programmes should provide quality drug analysis for its customers. The main aim of these guidelines is the provision of a framework of quality management in the processing of drug evidence. Processing of drug evidence includes evidence handling, management practices, qualitative analysis and reporting of results. The establishment and management of a documented quality management system is imperative and should cover all procedures and reports associated with the analysis of drugs.

Title: The Identification and Quantitation of Ketamine Hydrochloride
Author: Rees-D-K; Wasem-S-E
Source: () MICROGRAM; 2000; V33 (7); July; P163-167
Abstract: Since August 1999, ketamine, its salts, isomers, and salts of isomers have been placed in Schedule III under the Controlled Substances Act (CSA) in the United States. Subsequently, the United States Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) has received several samples of ketamine, therefore methods had to be developed for the screening, identification and quantitation of this drug. Users of ketamine hydrochloride, which is usually supplied in liquid form as a veterinary analgesic, tend to evaporate the liquid to an almost pure white crystalline powder. Samples of liquid and crystalline ketamine hydrochloride have been analysed by thin-layer chromatography, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results of these analyses are presented.

Title: Determination of the Weight Percent of Acetic Acid in Acetic Anhydride by 1H-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy
Author: Hays-P-A; Cooper-D-A
Source: () MICROGRAM; 2000; V33 (7); July; P160-162
Abstract: This paper describes the use of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy for the determination of the weight percentage of acetic acid in a sample of acetic anhydride. Acetic anhydride is the principal reagent used for the acetylation of morphine to diamorphine (heroin), therefore determining the amount of acetic acid present in the acetic anhydride can be used to determine the origin of manufacture as acetic acid is the main impurity in the acetic anhydride.

Title: Basic Computer Evidence Documentation
Author: Phelan-M-J
Source: () MICROGRAM; 2000; V33 (6); June; P142-143
Abstract: The documentation of computer evidence is used to identify the original evidence in court and to document the settings of the computer hardware and firmware. Basic computer documentation comprises basic hardware description, hard drive description, hard drive settings, firmware settings, and hard drive duplication settings. Such information should be uniquely attributable to a case number, exhibit number, and laboratory evidence number. The examiner recording the observations, the submitting investigator, and the field office should also be identified by this description.

Title: Effects of Cyanoacrylate Processing on Cocaine HCl Trace Analysis
Author: Morris-T-A; Michiels-A-S
Source: () MICROGRAM; 2000; V33 (5); May; P97-101
Abstract: Items of evidence submitted to forensic laboratories may require both a trace drug (cocaine hydrochloride) analysis and latent fingerprint processing. Such cases pose a problem when determining which of the two analyses is the more important as processing the evidence for one type may affect processing for the remaining type. The aim of this work was to determine the effect of cyanoacrylate processing for fingerprints on subsequent cocaine HCl analysis. The evidentiary items used were plastic zip-lock sandwich bags often used for purchases of cocaine HCl. The results showed that the use of cyanoacrylate processing for latent fingerprints should not affect the detection of trace amounts of cocaine HCl on plastic bags.

Title: The Sufficiency of Examination Issue
Author: Phelan-M-J
Source: () MICROGRAM; 2000; V33 (4); April; P72-73
Abstract: The ever-increasing demand placed on computer forensic laboratory programmes means that the amount of effort required for a digital examination must be decided. Basically, there are three different strategies for determining the extent of a computer forensic examination. The most limited of these is aimed at answering the investigator's specific request, which is rapid and easy to perform. The second strategy involves searching files until enough information is found to sustain a conviction. The third, most comprehensive and labour-intensive, approach is to examine all active and erased files, and all unallocated data storage areas on the hard disk. The circumstances of each case should dictate which of these search strategies should be used.

Title: On the Use of Activated Charcoal to Circumvent Canine Detection of Concealed Narcotics - Part I
Author: Vu-D-T
Source: () MICROGRAM; 2000; V33 (4); April; P68-71
Abstract: Drug smugglers have used a variety of materials as masking agents in an effort to prevent sniffer dogs detecting concealed drugs. In a recent case, a concealment area was found to be surrounded by activated charcoal, which is a very effective odour absorbent making the drug odour unavailable to the sniffer dogs. Customs officials should be aware of the possibility of the use of activated charcoal as an odour absorbent by drug smugglers.

Title: The Scientific Working Group on Digital Evidence
Author: Phelan-M-J
Source: () MICROGRAM; 2000; V33 (3); March; P48-49
Abstract: The Scientific Working Group on Digital Evidence (SWGDE) was set up to define the standards that will eventually regulate the exchange of information among law enforcement agencies. SWGDE will also provide the basis for laboratory organisations and for the judicial system to assess the admissibility of digital evidence and the qualifications of the expert witnesses. The scope of SWGDE includes computer forensics, digital video, audio, and photography. Technical definitions and guidelines are presented for the implementation of this programme.

Title: The Identification of Sibutramine
Author: Blackledge-R-D; Sorenson-P-D
Source: () MICROGRAM; 2000; V33 (1); January; P18-20
Abstract: Sibutramine may be identified in unknown drug capsules by its characteristic mass spectrum, resulting from gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) analysis of dry chloroform extracts of portions of the capsules. This may be of use to toxicologists as sibutramine is now listed as a controlled substance by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

Title: Analysis of Methamphetamine Hydrochloride Exhibits Containing a Hydrocarbon Wax
Author: DeFrancesco-J-V
Source: () MICROGRAM; 1999; V32 (12); December; P357-365
Abstract: Most of the solid methamphetamine exhibits submitted to the author's laboratory contain diluents such as dimethyl sulphone or nicotinamide. Recently, four methamphetamine sample which were submitted were found to contain a hydrocarbon wax as the only diluent. Although this substance is occasionally used to imitate crack cocaine, this is the author's first experience of hydrocarbon wax being used as a methamphetamine diluent. The four exhibits also contained unreacted pseudoephedrine and four other compounds thought to be by-products of the Birch reduction of pseudoephedrine to methamphetamine. This paper describes the separation, identification, and quantitative analysis of both the hydrocarbon wax and the methamphetamine in the samples.

Title: SWGDRUG Proposal for Quality Assurance Guidelines in Forensic Drug Analysis
Author: Anon
Source: () MICROGRAM; 1999; V32 (12); December; P335-356
Abstract: It is the aim of a laboratory's drug analysis programme to provide quality drug analysis. The guidelines proposed in this paper aim to provide a framework of quality management in the processing of drug evidence, including the handling of evidence, management practices, qualitative analysis, and reporting of results.

Title: Quantitation of Illicit Drugs in Routine Forensic Analysis Via NMR
Author: Phelan-C-P
Source: () MICROGRAM; 1999; V32 (11); November; P312-324
Abstract: In this study, proton spectra obtained using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) were used for the quantitation of illicit drugs in routine forensic analysis. NMR was used for the quantitative analysis of methamphetamine hydrochloride, amphetamine hydrochloride and cocaine hydrochloride, and the results obtained were compared to quantitative results obtained using gas chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography. It is concluded that NMR is an accurate and reliable method of analysis in the forensic context.

Title: Computer Forensics and the Diversion Case
Author: Phelan-M-J
Source: () MICROGRAM; 1999; V32 (10); October; P286-287
Abstract: The investigation of cases involving drug diversion is complicated, requiring computer forensic support for the seizing and analysis of computer data from organisations involved in the handling of licit drugs such as drug manufacturers, hospitals, pharmacies, and drug treatment clinics. The type of organisation involved dictates the way in which computer forensic support is used for evidence collection. This article provides a summary of typical evidence collection considerations and types of support for large organisations, small-to-medium organisations, and individuals.

Title: Reaction Byproducts of Common Cold Tablet Ingredients Via Hydriodic Acid/Red Phosphorus
Author: Oulton-S-R; Skinner-H-F
Source: () MICROGRAM; 1999; V32 (10); October; P257-285
Abstract: In southern California, the current method of choice for the synthesis of illicit methamphetamine is the reduction of ephedrine or pseudoephedrine with hydriodic acid and red phosphorus. However, as a result of restrictions on the availability of both precursors, common cold tablet preparations are increasingly being used as a source of ephedrine and pseudoephedrine. Such tablets also contain other ingredients such as paracetamol, chlorpheniramine, dextromethorphan, diphenhydramine, doxylamine, guaifenesin, and triprolidine. Depending on the isolation method used, these other compounds may be present in the reaction mixtures and subsequently produce other by-products. This paper describes the by-products formed as a result of the reaction between the tablet ingredients and hydriodic acid/red phosphorus. The identification of the by-products found in clandestine methamphetamine laboratories would help to determine the exact cold preparation used as the source of the precursor.

Title: Etonitazene Encountered in Moscow
Author: Sorokin-V-I; Ponkratov-K-V; Drozdov-M-A
Source: () MICROGRAM; 1999; V32 (9); P239-244
Abstract: In early 1998, the new narcotic drug etonitazene appeared in the illegal drug market in Moscow. This drug is illicitly manufactured as is sold on the illegal market in white or yellow powder form. This paper presents the analytical data (from TLC, GC-MS, HPLC, IR and UV analyses) that were used to unambiguously identify etonitazene in illicit samples which were submitted for laboratory analysis. Smoking is the main route of administration of this drug.

Title: Extraction of GHB for FTIR Analysis and a New Colour Test for Gamma-Butyrolactone
Author: Morris-J-A
Source: () MICROGRAM; 1999; V32 (8); P215-221
Abstract: As the illicit use of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) increases in the United States, and with the possibility of control on the Federal level, a procedure is described for the detection and identification of GHB. This method uses the 1% cobalt nitrate in ethanol reagent to indicate the presence of GHB and a new colour test to indicate the presence of gamma-butyrolactone (GBL). The initial screening process is followed by direct FTIR analysis for relatively pure samples of powder. The analysis of liquid and dry mixtures is achieved by converting GHB to the lactone and then converting the lactone back to the sodium salt of GHB. The sodium salt is then subjected to FTIR analysis.

Title: Hydration Polymorphism of 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine Hydrochloride
Author: Chappell-J; Lee-M
Source: () MICROGRAM; 1999; V32 (5); P159-167
Abstract: The occurrence of polymorphism in solid crystalline materials can cause problems when attempting to identify controlled drugs using infrared transmission spectrometry, a frequently used analysis method in crime laboratories. Occasionally, this behaviour may be exhibited by amine drugs or their salts. This paper describes the appearance of three different crystalline forms for the hydrochloride salt of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). The different crystalline states may be characterised by varying degrees of hydration and are influenced by the moisture content of the surrounding atmosphere. The effect of such behaviour on the infrared properties of MDMA, and the chemistry behind the process of hydration, are discussed.

Title: Computer Corner - The Electronic Crime Scene
Author: Phelan-M-J
Source: () MICROGRAM; 1999; V32 (5); P172-175
Abstract: The huge increase in the number of personal computers used and access to the Internet means that there is an ever-increasing probability that some form of electronic evidence will be present at a crime scene. Investigators should be aware of the potential for evidence to be contained in a number of possible digital storage devices such as cameras, electronic organisers, and palm-top computers. This paper discusses the procedures an investigator must follow in order to properly acquire, label, transport, and storage of electronic devices as evidence.

Title: Trace Analysis by GC/MS Using Pulsed Splitless Injections
Author: Dallabetta-Keller-T
Source: () MICROGRAM; 1999; V32 (5); P168-171
Abstract: Very sensitive instruments are required for the measurement of very low concentrations of controlled substances in trace samples which are submitted to the laboratory. In such cases, larger injection volumes are used to compensate for the lack of sensitivity of the instruments used, but this results in a loss of reproducibility and resolution. This paper describes a pressure pulsed method on a gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer for the more efficient transfer of a sample onto the column. Experimental data shows that this method enhances the ability to detect lower concentrations of controlled substances without any loss of resolution.

Title: Identification of Psilocin and Bufotenine Via GC/IRD
Author: Phelan-C-P
Source: () MICROGRAM; 1999; V32 (2); P83-89
Abstract: A problem in the gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) analysis of psilocin and bufotenine is that the two compounds are positional isomers of one another and, therefore, give very similar GC-MS spectra. This paper describes an alternative gas chromatographic-infrared spectrometric (GC-IRD) procedure for the analysis of psilocin and bufotenine. It was found that the resulting spectra for these two compounds were distinct and unique, eliminating the need for prior derivatisation.

Title: Procedure for the Identification of Flunitrazepam Tablets (Rohypnol)
Author: Chociay-J; Szarka-J; McBride-C
Source: () MICROGRAM; 1999; V32 (2); P75-82
Abstract: The abuse of flunitrazepam (Rohypnol) has recently generated a great deal of public interest. In view of this, this paper describes testing procedures (thin-layer chromatography, UV-Vis spectrophotometry, infrared spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) for flunitrazepam specifically, and benzodiazepines in general.

Title: Designed Drugs in Italy
Author: Morselli-O; Bovolenta-A; Ripani-L; Santoro-M; Coletta-C; Ciotola-G; Bosio-L; Garofano-L
Source: () MICROGRAM; 1999; V32 (2); P51-74
Abstract: This paper reports the chemical and physical characteristics, e.g. logos, colours, weights, dimensions and percentages of active ingredient, of black market designer drugs in northern and central Italy.

Title: Identification of the Phosphate Salt of 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine
Author: Chappell-J-S
Source: () MICROGRAM; 1999; V32 (4); P143
Abstract: Two tablets suspected of containing 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) were analysed by GC-MS and, indeed, were found to contain MDMA. However, no methylene chloride solubles were detected during a serial extraction procedure, therefore MDMA was not present as its hydrochloride salt. Further analysis revealed that the MDMA was present in the form of a phosphate salt. To the author's knowledge, this is the first example of illicit MDMA in a form other than the hydrochloride salt.

Title: The Analysis of Ecstasy (MDMA Analogues and Homologues) Using an FT/IR Spectrophotometer with Microscope Attachment
Author: Fox-J
Source: () MICROGRAM; 1998; V31 (12); P344-349
Abstract: 'Ecstasy' is the popular name given to 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), but tablets which are sold illicitly as ecstasy can often contain other amphetamine derivatives. In this study, the author investigated the use of Fourier Transform/Infrared (FT/IR) spectroscopy as a method of identifying the compounds present in ecstasy tablets. The addition of a microscope attachment to the FT/IR system eliminates the previously limiting factor of disc preparation. It is concluded that FT/IR, used in combination with thin-layer chromatography, is a more rapid alternative to GC-MS for the analysis of multiple samples.

Title: The Analysis of Telazol; A Tiletamine/Zolazepam Mixture
Author: Gagliano-A; Smith-P-R; Hays-P-A; Cooper-D-A; Moore-J-M
Source: MICROGRAM; 1999; V32 (1); January; P26-39
Abstract: When the drugs tiletamine hydrochloride and zolazepam hydrochloride are combined, they constitute a controlled substance, Telazol. It is thought that Telazol is being abused for its dissociative-anaesthetic effects. This paper describes the analysis of Telazol, which is normally used as a veterinary anaesthetic using FTIR, GC-MS, NMR, HPLC and GC-IRD. Column chromatography can be used to separate the two drugs prior to IR spectroscopic identification.

Title: The Separation and Identification of 3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine Derivatives (MDA, MDMA, MDEA and MBDB) in Tablets
Author: Mizrachi-N; Burla-R; Sonenfeld-D; Goren-Z
Source: MICROGRAM; 1999; V32 (1); January; P16-25
Abstract: Most of the illicit tablets seized in Israel during the last two years have contained 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA) and its derivatives (MDMA, MDEA and MBDB), which can be identified by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and IR spectroscopy. In an effort to improve the current extraction method for these drugs, the tablets are extracted in a two-phase system comprising a 1% aqueous ammonia phase with hexane as the organic phase. This extraction method provided a satisfactory IR spectrum of the drug studied, thereby enabling a positive identification to be made.

Title: Terbinafine Hydrochloride
Author: Hays-P-A
Source: MICROGRAM; 1999; V32 (1); January; P11-15
Abstract: The DEA Special Testing and Research Laboratory was recently asked to analyse an alleged sample of heroin. The sample was, in fact, found to contain 80.8% Terbinafine hydrochloride, which is an antifungal preparation, cellulose and gelatinised starch. Details are given regarding the analysis of the material.

Title: The Use of Heat to Eliminate Dimethyl Sulfone from Amphetamine and Methamphetamine Hydrochloride Samples
Author: Morales-R
Source: MICROGRAM; 1999; V32 (1); January; P10
Abstract: It is frequently the case that samples of methamphetamine hydrochloride or amphetamine hydrochloride are mixed exclusively with dimethyl sulphone. It was found that, when attempts were made to identify the methamphetamine/amphetamine salt in the presence of dimethyl sulphone, the dimethyl sulphone interfered with the IR spectrum. In order to isolate the controlled substances from the dimethyl sulphone, therefore, the sample was heated in a convection oven for 10 minutes at a temperature of 115C. As the sample was heated, the dimethyl sulphone sublimated, leaving behind the methamphetamine hydrochloride or amphetamine hydrochloride. If this process does not work, then heating the sample for a further 10 minutes should solve the problem.

Title: The Analysis of Ecstasy (MDMA Analogues and Homologues) Using an FTIR Spectrophotometer with Microscope Attachment
Author: Fox-J
Source: MICROGRAM; 1998; V31 (12); December; P344-349
Abstract: Illicit tablets which are sold as "ecstasy" do not always contain methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). In many cases, so-called "ecstasy" tablets contain methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA) or MBDB, all as hydrochloride salts. One method of determining the composition of "ecstasy" tablets is using Fourier Transform/Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and thin-layer chromatography (TLC). This paper describes an FTIR system with a microscope attachment for the elimination of the disc preparation stage usually required.

Title: A Simple Method for Extraction and Spectrophotometric Quantitation of Morphine in Raw Opium
Author: Saha-U; Sanyal-M; Roy-L; Sarkar-B; Majumdar-K
Source: MICROGRAM; 1998; V31 (11); November; P310-319
Abstract: This paper describes a simple and rapid method for the extraction and quantitation of morphine in samples of raw opium. After the raw opium is washed with chloroform, the morphine can be extracted with hydrochloric acid. The resulting colourless solution contains the extracted morphine but no other major opium alkaloids. The morphine content of the sample is then determined by spectrophotometric analysis using sodium nitrite in HCl medium.

Title: Sublimation of Dimethyl Sulphone
Author: Sorgen-G-J
Source: MICROGRAM; 1998; V31 (11); November; P308-309
Abstract: Sublimation is the name given to the process by which a solid transforms directly to a gas, with no liquid stage. Sublimation is a useful purification and separation method because few compounds sublime to any significant degree. If one compound that does sublime is found in a mixture of other compounds that do not sublime, therefore, separation is easy and clean.This paper describes the use of sublimation for the purification of dimethyl sulphone from a mixture of dimethyl sulphone and methamphetamine hydrochloride. The method used does not require solvents or test tubes and requires very little chemist time.

Title: HPLC Quantitation of Clandestinely Manufactured Mixtures of Amphetamine and Methamphetamine
Author: Malone-J-V
Source: MICROGRAM; 1998; V31 (11); November; P304-307
Abstract: Clandestine laboratories synthesising methamphetamine are commonly found throughout the USA. The method of choice for the synthesis of methamphetamine is the reduction of ephedrine or pseudoephedrine with hydriodic acid in the presence of red phosphorus. Amphetamine can be produced by reduction of phenylpropanolamine with hydriodic acid. This paper describes how HPLC can be used for the chromatographic separation of phenylpropanolamine, pseudoephedrine, amphetamine and methamphetamine qualitatively and quantitatively. HPLC using narrow-bore technology is shown to be a robust and sensitive method for quantitating mixtures of these compounds.

Title: Identification of Common Inorganic Acids Encountered at Clandestine Laboratories
Author: Oulton-S-R; Skinner-H-F
Source: MICROGRAM; 1998; V31 (10); October; P277-287
Abstract: Inorganic acids are frequently used for the synthesis of controlled substances in clandestine laboratories. The most commonly encountered are hydrochloric, hydriodic, hydrobromic, hypophosphorus, phosphorous, phosphoric, nitric, and sulphuric acids. The analysis of these acids with conventional laboratory instrumentation can prove difficult. An easier method of analysis of these acids is the use of simple silver and barium nitrate precipitation tests, and by reacting with ammonium hydroxide forming ammonium salts. The salts can then be isolated and identified using infrared spectrophotometry.

Title: Phenylpropylmethylamine
Author: Hays-P-A; McKibben-T; Koles-J-E; Bethea-M-J
Source: MICROGRAM; 1998; V31 (10); October; P269-276
Abstract: An unknown powder, originally thought to be methylamphetamine was submitted to the DEA Special Testing and Research Laboratory. Analysis of this powder revealed dextrose, corn starch, stearic acid, palmitic acid, a phthalate and around 10% phenylpropylmethylamine (PPMA). This paper describes the methods used to qualitatively analyse this compound, including GC-MS, NMR, GC-IRD and FTIR. Similarities in the spectra of the phenylethylamines and PPMA suggest that care should be taken when interpreting such spectra. There does not appear to be any interest in phenylpropylmethylamine as an illicit drug. It has little CNS activity, and its presence in tablets is probably the result of an attempt to synthesis methylamphetamine.

Title: Methods of Differentiation for Regioisomeric 2,3- and 3,4-Methylenedioxyphenalkylamines by Liquid Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry
Author: Clark-C-R; Noggle-F-T; Holston-P-L; De-Ruiter-J
Source: MICROGRAM; 1998; V31 (9); September; P244-257
Abstract: Chromatographic and spectroscopic methods have been used to compare a series of ring and side-chain regioisomers of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine. Regioisomerism at the aromatic ring and alkyl side chain in methylenedioxyphenylalkylamine compounds gives a variety of compounds possessing very similar analytical properties. The identification of specific compounds in a forensic drug sample is dependent on the ability of the analyst to eliminate other regioisomers as possible interferants. In this work, the 2,3- and 3,4-regioisomers of MDMA, MDEA, BDB, and MBDB were synthesised from commercially available from precursors. The underivatised amines gave very similar mass spectra, providing insufficient information for differentiation among side chain or ring regioisomers. The PFPA derivatives of the amines gave mass spectral fragmentation identifying the substituent attached to nitrogen and a number of carbons directly attached to the aromatic ring. Use of a reversed-phase chromatographic system with a Hypersil-Elite C18 stationary phase and acidic hydro-organic mobile phases gave good resolution of the regioisomeric amines.

Title: Dihydroetorphine and Etorphine
Author: Hays-P-A
Source: MICROGRAM; 1998; V31 (9); September; P234-243
Abstract: Studies have shown that dihydroetorphine (DHE), a thebaine derivative, is a potent narcotic analgesic with a lower risk of dependence than morphine. DHE and the structurally similar etorphine have been analysed by Fourier transform IR spectrometry, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, gas chromatography with flame ionisation detection, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry. The results of these analyses are provided, together with the spectra obtained for the drugs studied.

Title: Chemical Screening and Identification Techniques for Flunitrazepam
Author: Rucker-C-L
Source: MICROGRAM; 1998; V31 (7); July; P198-206
Abstract: Flunitrazepam has usually been encountered in forensic laboratories in tablet form, imprinted with either "ROCHE 1" or "ROCHE 2". The principal component of these tablets is alpha-lactose which is used as a binding material. Chemical screening must be performed on tablets or unknown powders in order to ensure that a representative sample is analysed. It is possible that counterfeit preparations, which contain no flunitrazepam, may be encountered. This paper describes the various techniques used in the screening of such samples and also discusses the instrumental applications for the identification of flunitrazepam.

Title: The Identification of 4-Methylthioamphetamine
Author: Poortman-Van-Der-Meer-A-J
Source: MICROGRAM; 1998; V31 (6); June; P174-180
Abstract: This paper describes three cases involving a new ring-substituted amphetamine derivative. In the first case, several containers full of yellow crystals were found at a clandestine laboratory site. The contents of one of these containers was unidentified. In the second case, tablets were recovered and found to contain an unknown compound and caffeine. In the third case, toxicological analysis of blood in a drugs-related fatality found the same compound that was found in the second case. The crystals in the first case were found to be 1-(4-methylthiopentyl)-2-nitropropene and the unknown substance in the other two cases was found to be 4-methylthioamphetamine.

Title: The Identification of 4-Methylthioamphetamine in a Drug Seizure
Author: Groombridge-C-J
Source: MICROGRAM; 1998; V31 (5); May; P150-160
Abstract: A recent submission to the Metropolitan Laboratory included a number of tablets, which were individually packaged with well-produced, printed matchbook-like packets, labelled "S5 The One and Only Dominator". The tablets were mottled white, 14 mm in diameter, 4.7 mm thick, weighing 710 mg, and half-scored, with no other markings. The labels claimed that the tablets contained caffeine and a range of vitamins and herbal ingredients. Analysis of these tablets, however, showed that they contained a new drug substance; 4-methylthioamphetamine (4MTA). The identification and quantitative analysis of this substance by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy is reported.

Title: "Love Stone" - A Hallucinogen, An Aphrodisiac, and A Deadly Poison
Author: Chamakura-R-P
Source: MICROGRAM; 1998; V31 (5); May; P127-149
Abstract: Bufotenine is a psilocin isomer and classified as a Schedule I hallucinogen under Federal US laws, which is also reputedly an aphrodisiac. There was uncertainty about the natural source of bufotenine until GC-MS analysis confirmed the substance was derived from toad venom. Bufotenine, or "Love Stone", is also extremely toxic if taken orally but it has ben hypothesised that the toxic effects are destroyed by smoking. Given the fact that there have been three reported deaths involving the ingestion of "Love Stone", this substance requires more research in the public interest.

Title: Utilising R.A.M. Dye Stain to Develop Latent Ridge Detail on Clandestine Laboratory Evidence, Seized Firearm Evidence, and Other Drug Related Evidence
Author: Spjut-S-R
Source: MICROGRAM; 1996; V29 (6); June; P149-154
Abstract: Use of cyanoacrylate and dusting powder alone in the development of latent ridge detail on clandestine laboratory items and other drug-related evidence can often be difficult. Clear ridge detail for comparison purposes can be achieved by use of R.A.M. on post-cyanoacrylate developed surfaces. Also, R.A.M. can be used on other non-porous surfaces in order to enhance latent details on surfaces which, in the past, have proved difficult. Although this method should not be used to process all types of surface, it can be used on most items which have been processed with cyanoacrylate.

Title: Extraction of Cocaine from Currency. Plus Letter from DEA, USA
Author: Sorgen-G-J; Heagy-J-A
Source: MICROGRAM; 1983; V16(8); August; P132-133

Title: Identification of LSD by Capillary Column GC/MS
Author: Kessler-R-R
Source: MICROGRAM; 1988; V21(12); December; P217-221

Title: A Note About an Artifact in GC Analysis of Piperonal
Author: Verweij-A-M-A; Poortman-A-J-V-D
Source: MICROGRAM; 1992; V25(6); June; P160-163

Title: Identification of Ephedroxane A New Drug of Abuse
Author: Spurlock-L; Kopec-R; Morris-W-A
Source: MICROGRAM; 1992; V25(3); March; P49-56

Title: Estimation of Cocaine Concentration Prior to GC/MS Analysis
Author: Schwartz-M; McMahon-B; Buel-E
Source: MICROGRAM; 1992; V25(4); April; P110-112

Title: Theoretical Yields from Precursors in Clandestine Laboratory Investigations
Author: Churchill-K-T
Source: MICROGRAM; 1992; V25(4); April; P95-109

Title: Antipyrine and Aminopyrine in Cocaine Exhibits
Author: Simpson-T-P; Bryant-C-H
Source: MICROGRAM; 1991; V24(3); March; P54-60

Title: Comparative Analytical Profiles for Regioisomeric Phenethylamines Related to Methamphetamine
Author: Noggle-F-T; Clark-C-R; DeRuiter-J
Source: MICROGRAM; 1991; V24(4); April; P76-91

Title: Psilocin Qualitative Analysis Using an FT/IR Microscope
Author: Rodwell-T-R
Source: MICROGRAM; 1991; V24(4); April; P70-75

Title: Analysis of 1-(3,4-Dimethoxyphenyl)-2-Propanamines - Analogues of MDMA
Author: Noggle-F-T; Clark-C-R; Ruiter-J-D
Source: MICROGRAM; 1992; V25(2); February; P33-39

Title: Application of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy to the Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Cocaine Samples
Author: Berens-L-J
Source: MICROGRAM; 1992; V25(1); January; P8-18

Title: Identification of 3 (3, 4, 5, Trimethoxyphenyl) Propionic Acid
Author: Lora-Tamayo-C; Megia-F; Tena-T; Valcarce-F; Sanchis-A; Carvajal-R
Source: MICROGRAM; 1991; V24(9); September; P227-241

Title: Chromatographic and Spectral Analysis of 1-Phenyl-2-Butanamines - Homologues of the Amphetamines
Author: Noggle-F-T; Clark-C-R; DeRuiter-J
Source: MICROGRAM; 1991; V24(12); December; P289-298

Title: Comparative Analytical Profiles for 4,5-Dihydro-5-Phenyl-2-Oxazolamine (Aminorex) and 4,5-Dihydro-4-Phenyl-2-Oxazolamine (Rexamino)
Author: Noggle-F-T; Clark-C-R; DeRuiter-J
Source: MICROGRAM; 1990; V23(12); December; P281-288

Title: Quantitation of 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine Tablets
Author: Pace-K-M
Source: MICROGRAM; 1990; V23(11); November; P265-267

Title: The Use of Microcrystal Tests With Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectrometry For the Rapid Identification of Illicit Cocaine
Author: Wielbo-D; Tebbett-I-R; Fitzsimmons-C; Palenik-S
Source: MICROGRAM; 1990; V23(11); November; P258-264

Title: Opium Poppies in Georgia
Author: Fontis-G-J; Stojkovic-V
Source: MICROGRAM; 1990; V23(10); October; P243-245

Title: Anabolic Steroids in "Cross-Tops"
Author: Johnson-T-D
Source: MICROGRAM; 1990; V23(10); October; P237-242

Title: Cocaine Quantitation Via HPLC or GCMSD With One Sample/Standard Preparation Method
Author: Lamminen-K-E; Colon-N-S
Source: MICROGRAM; 1990; V23(8); August; P162-171

Title: Identification of Regioisomers and Enantiomers of N-(Chlorobenzyl)-alpha-Methylphenethylamines - Analogues of Clobenzorex
Author: Noggle-F-T; Clark-C-R; DeRuiter-J
Source: MICROGRAM; 1990; V23(7); July; P140-152

Title: Tetraphenyloxirane - A Tetraphenylethylene-Chloroform Impurity Reaction Product
Author: Clark-C-C
Source: MICROGRAM; 1990; V23(7); July; P153-155

Title: dl-Aminorex
Author: Klein-R-F-X; Morello-D-R
Source: MICROGRAM; 1990; V23(6); June; P119-127

Title: Failure to Detect Methamphetamine by Gas Chromatographic Screening in the Presence of Chloromethamphetamine
Author: Power-J-A
Source: MICROGRAM; 1990; V23(6); June; P116-118

Title: A Simple Procedure for Separating Cocaine Base from Procaine Base
Author: Kerr-K
Source: MICROGRAM; 1990; V23(5); May; P93-96

Title: Separation of Cocaine from Benzocaine
Author: Galka-K-L; Budzinski-L
Source: MICROGRAM; 1990; V23(5); May; P97-98

Title: Procedure for Extraction of LSD from Blotter Paper
Author: Boshears-F-E
Source: MICROGRAM; 1990; V23(5); May; P99-100

Title: Household Bleach as a Test for Drugs
Author: Kaufman-M-S
Source: MICROGRAM; 1990; V23(4); April; P75-77

Title: Microscale Organic Laboratory Techniques - Relevance and Applications for Forensic Science
Author: Rothchild-R
Source: MICROGRAM; 1990; V23(2); February; P37-43

Title: Elimination of Prominent Base Ions to Enhance Mass Spectral Pattern Matching
Author: Tackett-S
Source: MICROGRAM; 1990; V23(1); January; P12-14

Title: Extraction and Analysis of Codeine, Morphine and Methadone from Medicinal Preparations
Author: Moore-C-M; Tebbett-I-R; Scheurer-J
Source: MICROGRAM; 1989; V22(12); December; P229-232

Title: The Transparent Cocaine
Author: Calderon-J-L; Robetta-L
Source: MICROGRAM; 1989; V22(12); December; P233-239

Title: "Ice"
Author: Anon
Source: MICROGRAM; 1989; V22(11); November; P197-198
Abstract: A new form of d-methamphetamine hydrochloride, known as "Ice" is reported to be currently in heavy demand in the Hawaiian Islands and on the upswing on the West Coast of the US. According to a report received from the Drug Enforcement Administration, "Ice" is simply d-methamphetamine hydrochloride in very large, crystal-clear "rocks" and is prepared by slow evaporation of a saturated solution of the salt in (possibly) water or isopropanol. Several clandestine laboratories in the Western United States, possibly attempting synthesis of this new variant have recently been seized. Other street names for "Ice" are "crack meth", "Glass", "Shabu", and "Hiropong", while 4-methylaminorx, also known as "U4Euh", is currently referred to as "Ice" in the Eastern United States.

Title: Identification of Etryptamine
Author: Lora; Taymo-C; Sanchiz-A; Valcarcel-F; Rodriguez-A; Gomez-J
Source: MICROGRAM; 1989; V22(9); September; P161-171

Title: Identification of Cathine

Author: Noggle-F-T; Clarke-C-R; DeRuiter-J
Source: MICROGRAM; 1989; V22(7); July; P120-126

Title: Identification of Cathine
Author: Noggle-F-T; Clark-C-R; DeRuiter-J
Source: MICROGRAM; 1989; V23(7); July; P120-126

Title: Ethylidene Diacetate - A Substitute for Acetic Anhydride in Heroin Production.
Author: Anon
Source: MICROGRAM; 1987; V20(11); NOVEMBER; P278

Title: Identification of 4-Ethoxy-2,5-Dimethoxyamphetamine HCI (MEM)
Author: Avdovich-H-W; Beckstead-H-D; Dawson-B-A; Wilson-W-L
Source: MICROGRAM; 1987; V20(3); March; P37-47

Title: Identification of Micro Quantities of LSD Using Infrared Spectrophotometry
Author: Brant-C-E
Source: MICROGRAM; 1987; V20(2); February; P24-31

Title: The Identification of Volatile Compounds Associated with Illicit Cocaine Samples
Author: Pettitt-B-C
Source: MICROGRAM; 1986; V19(12); December; P171-175

Title: USP NF Reference Standards.
Author: Anon
Source: MICROGRAM; 1978; V11(8); August; P1-12

Title: 1-Pyrrolidinocyclohexane Carbonitrile an Intermediate to the Pyrrolidine Analog of Phencyclidine.
Author: Teets-B-S
Source: MICROGRAM; 1986; V19(8); P115-119

Title: "Crack" What It Is and What It Does.
Author: Anon
Source: MICROGRAM; 1986; V19(8); August; P105-106

Title: Differentiation Between Methamphetamine And Phentermine By Gas Chromatography/Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry (GC/CIMS)
Author: Tamiri-T; Zitrin-S
Source: MICROGRAM; 1986; V19(6); June; P81-85

Title: Separation of Methamphetamine and Phenylacetone from Clandestine Laboratory Samples by HPLC
Author: Nguyen-M; Forjohn-H
Source: MICROGRAM; 1985; V18(10); 139; PP5

Title: A GC-MS Maintenance Program
Author: Stall-W-J; Masters-R-G
Source: MICROGRAM; 1985; V18(7); 94; PP5

Title: Schedules of Controlled Substances.Temporary Placement of 1-Methyl-1-Phenyl -4-Propionoxypiperidine (MPPP) and 1-(2-Phenylethyl)-4-Phenyl-4-Acetyloxy- piperidine (PEPAP)into Schedule 1.21CFR Part 1306
Author: Anon
Source: MICROGRAM; 1985; V18(9); 105; PP3

Title: Identification of 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine
Author: Churchill-K-T
Source: MICROGRAM; 1985; V18(9); 123; PP10

Title: Sufentanil
Author: Anon
Source: MICROGRAM; 1985; V18(9); 117; PP2

Title: Dibromobenzene-Related Impurities in Illicit PCP Samples
Author: Kiser-W-O
Source: MICROGRAM; 1985; V18(4); 50; PP5

Title: A Close Look at the Electron Impact Mass Spectrum of Phencyclidine
Author: Clark-C-C
Source: MICROGRAM; 1985; V18(3); 28; PP14

Title: A New Method for Extracting LSD in a Gelatinous Matrix
Author: Anderson-W-A; Hansen-J-R
Source: MICROGRAM; 1984; V17(9); 138; PP1

Title: 2-Ethyl-3-Phenyl-4(3H)-Quinazolinone
Author: Kiser-W-O
Source: MICROGRAM; 1984; V17(5); 75; PP3

Title: The Identification of Cannabis by Thin Layer Chromatography
Author: Bernard-G
Source: MICROGRAM; 1984; V17(5); 78; PP3

Title: Distinguishing Between LSD and LAMPA by Capillary GC/MS
Author: Siefert-J-H; Collins-D-L
Source: MICROGRAM; 1984; V17(7); 100; PP5

Title: The Identification of Psilocin and Psilocybin Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
Author: Timmons-J-E
Source: MICROGRAM; 1984; V17(2); 28; PP5

Title: Identification of Amphetamine and Methamphetamine TMS Derivatives via GC/MS
Author: Reyes-R-S
Source: MICROGRAM; 1984; V17(2); 23; PP5

Title: The Identification of Fenethylline
Author: Sickle-F-H-V
Source: MICROGRAM; 1983; V16(12); 174; PP6

Title: The Identification of a Methyl Homolog of Alpha-Methyl Fentanyl
Author: Allen-A-C; Lurie-I-S
Source: MICROGRAM; 1984; V17(1); 8; PP7

Title: Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)
Author: Anon
Source: MICROGRAM; 1983; V16; (11); 159; PP2

Title: A Method for the Quantitative Analysis of Lysergic Acid Diethylamide by HPLC
Author: Chase-G-W
Source: MICROGRAM; 1983; V16(7); 105; PP6

Title: Isolation and Identification of Psilocybin and Psilocin
Author: Bonin-M-A
Source: MICROGRAM; 1983; V16(6); 94; PP5

Title: Identification of d- and 1- Cocaine
Author: Sorgen-G-J
Source: MICROGRAM; 1983; V16(8); 126; PP6

Title: Asenlix
Author: Clemmons-C-G
Source: MICROGRAM; 1982; V15(12); 211; PP6

Title: DEA Laboratory Notes. p-Fluorofentanyl
Author: Cooper-D; Allen-A; Lurie-I
Source: MICROGRAM; 1981; V14(11); 154; PP7

Title: A TLC Forensic Screening for Basic Drugs in Urine
Author: Cole-R-K
Source: MICROGRAM; 1981; V14(10); 144; PP4

Title: Separation of Cocaine from Lidocaine
Author: Goldston-B-R; Ruybal-C-N
Source: MICROGRAM; 1981; V14(10); 134; PP2

Title: Identification and Quantitation of Nalbuphine and Butorphanol
Author: Drumgold-M-R; Hughes-R-B
Source: MICROGRAM; 1981; V16(9); 115; PP15

Title: Differentiation of Underivatized LSD and LAMPA by Combined GC-MS Analysis
Author: Ethier-C; Beckstead-H-D; Neville-G-A; Wilson-W-L
Source: MICROGRAM; 1981; V16(9); 109; PP6

Title: Identification of Alpha-benzyl-n-methyl-phenethylamine
Author: Teer-C-B; Wittwer-J-D
Source: MICROGRAM; 1981; V16(8); 99; PP6

Title: Identification of Components Found in Clandestine Phencyclidine Reaction Mixtures by Gas Chromatograph/Mass Spectrometry
Author: Raney-J-K; Stowronski-G-T; Wagenhofer-R-J
Source: MICROGRAM; 1981; V16(7); 78; PP9

Title: DEA Laboratory Notes. Identification of Dyclonine Hydrochloride in Illicit Drug Exhibits
Author: Cottrell-R; Hufsey-J; Kiser-W
Source: MICROGRAM; 1981; V14(6); 72; PP2

Title: Cleanup for IR alpha-Methyl Fentanyl
Author: Heagy-J-A
Source: MICROGRAM; 1981; V14(5); 61; PP4

Title: A Color Test for the Detection of Methaqualone
Author: Medina-F; Goldston-B-R
Source: MICROGRAM; 1981; V14(5); 57; PP4

Title: Identification of LSD by GLC-MS
Author: Steinhauer-F-A
Source: MICROGRAM; 1981; V14(4); 46; PP8

Title: Anabolic steroids - commercial products
Author: Tolliver-J-M
Source: (NK); MICROGRAM; 1991; 24/11 (268-281)
Abstract: Presents an alphabetical list of the trade names of commercially available anabolic steroids in various countries, together with details of ingredients and usage.